Homologous series and characteristics of homologous series

Homologous series and characteristics of homologous series

Definition;

Series of organic compounds which have a same functional group, similar structural feature but differ from each other by an integer number of CH2 (methylene group) is called “Homologous series”. The number of homologous series differs by molecular mass 14.

Characteristics of Homologous series:

 

    1. Zonke izinombolo series homologous babe izakhiwo ezifanayo.
    2. Izakhiwo zanoma homologous uchungechunge ushintsho kancane kancane ezingaphezu kuka noma esingaphansi ne-athomu carbon.
    3. Amalungu uchungechunge homologous amelwa efanayo ifomula jikelele CnH2n + 2 ngenxa alkane, CnH2n ngoba alkene futhi CnH2n-2 alkyne.
    4. I yamangqamuzana ifomula umahluko phakathi nanoma imaphi amalungu amabili alandelanayo kuyinto CH2.
    5. I yamangqamuzana isisindo umehluko phakathi nanoma imaphi amalungu amabili ngokulandelana kukhona 14.
    6. Amalungu ezihlukahlukene uchungechunge homologous unayo indlela efanayo jikelele Ngokwesibonelo preparation.for zonke alkanes ingalungiswa ngu zokunciphisa alkyl halide.
    7. Amalungu ahlukahlukene homologous uchungechunge show iziqu ovamile Izakhiwo kanye unezimiso nezakhi ezithile zamakhemikhali.
  1. Igama ilungu uchungechunge homologous noma ukuqeda nge Isijobelelo efanayo noma uqale nge isiqalo efanayo.

uchungechunge Homologous ka Alkanes, Alkenes, futhi Alkynes

uchungechunge Homologous iqembu compounds ngefomula efanayo jikelele, efakwe ohlwini ukuze andise ngosayizi, kuba hydrocarbon chain nge zehlukene isakhiwo, isakhiwo ngasinye kuyahluka kuphela CH2 e unit ngayinye. Sinenkosi efanayo amakhemikhali izakhiwo.

ngokuvamile, kukhona abathathu Homologues uchungechunge okungase okwengeziwe kuxoxwa ...

NGOKWESIBONELO:
ALKANE: CnH2n +1
ALKENE: CnH2n
ALKYNE: CnH2n-2
UTSHWALA: CnH2n +1 OH
ETHERS: CnH2nO

Alkanes

Uchungechunge lokuqala Homologous kuyinto Alkanes, iqukethe Ane ekupheleni igama ilungu Alkane ngamunye. ifomula Jikelele wayo nokuthi amakhemikhali akusiyo oncibilikayo emanzini.

  • CH3-OH, CH3-CH2-OH, C3H7-OH.
    • CH3-COOH, CH3-CH2-COOH, C3H7
  • CH3-O-CH3, C2H5-O-CH3, C3H7-O-CH3

Amagama ilungu Alkanes zingokulandelayo:

  • methane
  • ethane
  • propane
  • I-butane
  • Pentane
  • Hexane

Alkenes

Alkenes kukhona yesibili yochungechunge Homologous futhi igama amalungu omndeni Alkenes bagcina eyodwa.
Alkenes kukhona esisheshayo kakhulu ukwedlula Alkanes umndeni ngoba Alkenes has double isibopho Carbon ukuba Carbon. ifomula Jikelele.

Amagama amalungu Alkenes zimi omlandelayo:

 

  • Ethene
  • Propene
  • Butene
  • Pentene
  • Hexene

Homologous series

ifomula Jikelele

ukuphinda iyunithi

iqembu functional(s)

Ngokuqondile-chainCnH2n + 2 (n ≥ 1)H3C- … -CH3
Qondile2 (n ≥ 1)-CF2--CF3
chain alkylCnH2n + 1 (n ≥ 1)-CH2-H3C-
Ngokuqondile-chain 1-alkenesCnH2n (n ≥ 2)-CH2-H2C = C- … -CH3
CycloalkanesCnH2n (n ≥ 2)-CH2-
Chain 1-alkynesCnH2n - 2 (n ≥ 2)-CH2-HC≡C- … -CH3
PollyC2nH2nCH = CH-H3C-
alcohols Straight eyinhlokoCnH2n + 1OH-CH2-H3C- … -OH
Ngokuqondile-chain eyinhloko acidCnH2n +3 (n ≥ 0)-CH2-H3C-
azanes StraightNnHn + 2 (n ≥ 1)-NH-H2n- … -NH2

 

Alkynes

Alkynes ingeyesithathu uchungechunge Homologous futhi igama ilungu alkynes umndeni ugcina 'yne'. Iqukethe Carbon kathathu ukuba Carbon kunenze nisondelane futhi ifomula jikelele.

Amagama Alkynes ilungu lomndeni zimi omlandelayo:

  • Ethyne
  • Propyne
  • Butyne
  • Pentyne
  • Hexyne.

Ithemba uthanda lesi sihloko, uma benza uqiniseke uyinike kuhle futhi amazwana ezinhle phansi ngezansi.

24 Izimpendulo

  1. Brino February 14, 2018 / 2:16 am

    I passed my exam by this post very much good.
    Thanks you Mujeer.

  2. Nivro February 14, 2018 / 2:17 am

    I can’t believe that very nice.

  3. Nubii February 14, 2018 / 2:18 am

    Very likely.

  4. Shamein February 14, 2018 / 2:18 am

    Thanks you very much.

    • Nimra February 20, 2018 / 6:25 pm

      I also say.

  5. Kainat February 14, 2018 / 2:20 am

    Very nice Mujeer.

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