Homolog qator va homolog qator xususiyatlari

Homolog qator va homolog qator xususiyatlari

Definition;

bir xil funktsional guruh bor organik birikmalar Series, o'xshash tarkibiy xususiyati lekin CH2 bir aniq son bilan bir-biridan farq (methylene group) is called “Homologous series”. The number of homologous series differs by molecular mass 14.

Characteristics of Homologous series:

 

    1. All numbers of homologous series have similar structures.
    2. asta-sekin ko'proq yoki uglerod atomlarining soni bilan kamroq homolog qator o'zgarish jismoniy xususiyatlari.
    3. The members of homologous series are represented by same general formula CnH2n 2 for the alkane, CnH2n for alkene and CnH2n-2 for alkyne.
    4. The molecular formula difference between any two consecutive members is CH2.
    5. The molecular weight differences between any two successive members are 14.
    6. The various members of homologous series have the same general method of preparation.for example all alkanes can be prepared by the reduction of alkyl halide.
    7. The various members of homologous series show regular graduations in physical properties and have same chemical properties.
  1. Homolog qator a'zosi nomi ham shu qo'shimchasi bilan tugaydigan, yoki bir xil prefiksi bilan boshlanadi.

Alkanlarda homolog qator, alkenler, va Alkinler

Homolog qator umumiy formula bilan birikmalar bir guruh bo'lib, hajmi oshirish maqsadida keltirilgan, Bu tarkibida turli uglevodorod zanjiri deb, Har bir qurilish har bir birligi CH2 tomonidan faqat farq. Ular shunga o'xshash kimyoviy xususiyatlarga ega.

odatda, muhokama qilinishi mumkin uch homologlarını qator bor ...

MASALAN:
alkan: CnH2n + 1
alken: CnH2n
da'vogar: CnH2n-2
SPIRTLI: CnH2n + 1 OH
efirlari: CnH2nO

alkan

birinchi Homolog qator alkan bo'lgan, Bu alkan har a'zosi nomi oxirida ane mavjud. Uning umumiy formula va kimyoviy u suvda eruvchan emas.

  • CH3-OH, CH3-CH2-OH, C3H7-OH.
    • CH3-COOH, CH3-CH2-COOH, C3H7
  • CH3-O-CH3, C2H5-O-CH3, C3H7-O-CH3

quyidagicha alkanlarda a'zosi nomlari:

  • metan
  • etan
  • propan
  • butan
  • pentan
  • geksan

alkenler

Alkenler ikkinchi Homolog qator va Alkenler oila a'zolari nomi bor biri bilan yakun.
Alkenler uglerod ikki uglerod, chunki Alkenler alkan oila ancha reaktiv bo'ladi. Uning umumiy formula.

Alkenlerin a'zolari nomlari quyidagilar:

 

  • Ethene
  • Propene
  • buten
  • Pentene
  • Hekzen

Homologous series

Bosh formula

Takrorlash birligi

funktsional guruhi(s)

To'g'ri-zanjirCnH2n + 2 (n ≥ 1)H3C … -CH3
To'g'riga2 (n ≥ 1)-CF2--CF3
zanjir alkilCnH2n + 1 (n ≥ 1)-CH2-H3C
To'g'ri-zanjir 1-alkenlerCnH2n (n ≥ 2)-CH2-H2C = C … -CH3
CycloalkanesCnH2n (n ≥ 2)-CH2-
Zanjir 1-AlkinlerCnH2n - 2 (n ≥ 2)-CH2-HC≡C- … -CH3
polyC2nH2nCH = CH-H3C
To'g'ri asosiy spirtlarCnH2n + 1OH-CH2-H3C … Voy
To'g'ri-zanjir asosiy kislotalarCnH2n +3 (n ≥ 0)-CH2-H3C
to'g'ri azanesNnHn + 2 (n ≥ 1)-NH-H2N- jamlanmaning … -NH2

 

Alkinler

Alkinler uchinchi Homolog qator va Alkinler oila a'zosi nomi "yne" bilan tugaydi bo'lgan. Bu Uglerod bilan bog'laydi uch uglerod o'z ichiga oladi va u umumiy formula.

Alkinler oila a'zosi nomlari quyidagilar:

  • Ethyne
  • Propyne
  • Butyne
  • Pentyne
  • Hexyne.

Ushbu maqolaning kabi xohish, Agar qildi, agar ishonch hosil qadar bir Vizual va pastda yaxshi fikr beringlar.

24 Responses

  1. Brino fevral 14, 2018 / 2:16 emasman

    I passed my exam by this post very much good.
    Thanks you Mujeer.

    • mujeer fevral 14, 2018 / 8:16 emasman

      You’re welcome

  2. Nivro fevral 14, 2018 / 2:17 emasman

    I can’t believe that very nice.

  3. Nubii fevral 14, 2018 / 2:18 emasman

    Very likely.

  4. Shamein fevral 14, 2018 / 2:18 emasman

    Thanks you very much.

    • Nimra fevral 20, 2018 / 6:25 pm

      I also say.

  5. Kainat fevral 14, 2018 / 2:20 emasman

    Very nice Mujeer.

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