Homologous usoro na e ji mara nke homologous usoro

Homologous usoro na e ji mara nke homologous usoro

definition;

Series nke organic ogige nke nwere a otu ọtọ otu, yiri bughi mma ma dị iche n'ebe onye ọ bụla ọzọ site na ihe integer nọmba nke CH2 (methylene otu) a na-akpọ “Homologous usoro”. The ọnụ ọgụgụ nke homologous usoro iche site na molekụla uka 14.

Njirimara Homologous usoro:

 

    1. All nọmba nke homologous usoro nwere yiri owuwu.
    2. Physical Njirimara nke homologous usoro mgbanwe nke nta nke nta karịa ma ọ bụ ihe na-erughị na ọnụ ọgụgụ nke carbon atọm.
    3. The òtù homologous usoro na-anọchi anya n'otu usoro CnH2n + 2 maka alkane, CnH2n maka alkene na CnH2n-2 n'ihi alkyne.
    4. Molekụla usoro ihe dị iche n'etiti abụọ ọ bụla consecutive òtù bụ CH2.
    5. Molekụla ibu ọdịiche dị n'etiti ọ bụla abụọ na-esochi òtù 14.
    6. The dị iche iche òtù homologous usoro nwere otu general usoro preparation.for atụ niile alkanes nwere ike kwadebere site Mbelata alkyl halide.
    7. The dị iche iche òtù homologous usoro show mgbe graduations nkịtị Njirimara na nwere otu chemical Njirimara.
  1. Aha nke so a homologous usoro ma kwụsị na otu suffix ma ọ bụ na-amalite na otu nganiihu.

Homologous usoro nke Alkanes, Alkenes, na Alkynes

Homologous usoro bụ otu ìgwè nke ogige ya na n'otu usoro, depụtara iji dịkwuo na size, ọ bụ hydrocarbon agbụ ígwè na dị iche iche na Ọdịdị, onye ọ bụla ihe owuwu dị iche naanị site CH2 ọ bụla unit. Ha nwere yiri chemical Njirimara.

n'ozuzu, e nwere atọ Homologues usoro nke ike-atụlekwu banyere ...

ỌMỤMAATỤ:
ALKANE: CnH2n + 1
ALKENE: CnH2n
ALKYNE: CnH2n-2
mmanya: CnH2n + 1 OH
ETHERS: CnH2nO

Alkanes

The mbụ Homologous usoro bụ Alkanes, ya nwere afọ na njedebe nke aha onye ọ bụla so Alkane. Ya n'ozuzu usoro bụ na na ya na ọ bụghị soluble na mmiri.

  • Kra3-OH, Kra3-Kra2-OH, C3H7-OH.
    • Kra3-COOH, Kra3-Kra2-COOH, C3H7
  • Kra3-O-Kra3, C2H5-O-Kra3, C3H7-O-Kra3

The aha nke so Alkanes ndị dị ka ndị:

  • methane
  • Ethane
  • propane
  • butane
  • Pentane
  • Hexane

Alkenes

Alkenes bụ nke abụọ Homologous usoro na aha nke Alkenes òtù ezinụlọ ejedebe na otu.
Alkenes dị nnọọ reactive karịa Alkanes ezinụlọ n'ihi Alkenes nwere okpukpu abụọ nkekọ Carbon ka Carbon. Ya n'ozuzu usoro.

Aha ndị òtù nke Alkenes bụ dị ka ndị na:

 

  • Ethene
  • Propene
  • Butene
  • Pentene
  • Hexene

Homologous usoro

General usoro

ugboro ugboro unit

ọtọ otu(s)

Ogologo-yinyeCnH2n + 2 (n ≥ 1)H3C- … -CH3
Kwụ ọtọ2 (n ≥ 1)-CF2--CF3
Chain alkylCnH2n + 1 (n ≥ 1)-CH2-H3C-
Ogologo-yinye 1-alkenesCnH2n (n ≥ 2)-CH2-H2C = C- … -CH3
CycloalkanesCnH2n (n ≥ 2)-CH2-
Chain 1-alkynesCnH2n - 2 (n ≥ 2)-CH2-HC≡C- … -CH3
poliC2nH2nKra = CH-H3C-
Nnennen isi alcoholsCnH2n + 1OH-CH2-H3C- … -OH
Ogologo-yinye isi asịdCnH2n +3 (n ≥ 0)-CH2-H3C-
Nnennen azanesNnHn + 2 (n ≥ 1)-NH-H2N- … -NH2

 

Alkynes

Alkynes bụ atọ Homologous usoro na aha nke alkynes ezinụlọ agwụ elu na 'yne'. Ọ nwere atọ Carbon ka Carbon bonding na ọ bụ n'ozuzu usoro.

Aha Alkynes òtù ezinụlọ na-dị ka ndị na:

  • Ethyne
  • Propyne
  • Butyne
  • Pentyne
  • Hexyne.

Olileanya na ị na-dị ka isiokwu a, ma ọ bụrụ na i mere otú ahụ jide n'aka na ị na-enye ya a ịmeela na ezi comment ala n'okpuru.

24 Responses

  1. Brino February 14, 2018 / 2:16 m

    I passed my exam by this post very much good.
    Thanks you Mujeer.

    • mujeer February 14, 2018 / 8:16 m

      You’re welcome

  2. Nivro February 14, 2018 / 2:17 m

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  3. Nubii February 14, 2018 / 2:18 m

    Very likely.

  4. Shamein February 14, 2018 / 2:18 m

    Thanks you very much.

    • Nimra February 20, 2018 / 6:25 pm

      I also say.

  5. Kainat February 14, 2018 / 2:20 m

    Very nice Mujeer.

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