A Series of exercises designed to determine an individual’s level of fitness, primarily his or her cardiovascular fitness and muscle performance. Fitness testing is often carried out before a person starts an exercise program to evaluate its safety and suitability or to monitor progress thereafter. A physical examination is usually performed, including measurement of body fat, height, and weight. Blood and urine tests may be done, including an analysis of blood cholesterol. The performance of the heart is measured by taking. The pulse before, during, and after aerobic exercise such as step climbing, riding a stationary bicycle, or running on a treadmill. The more efficient the heart, the slower it works during exercise and the quicker it returns to normal afterward. Another test involves measuring a person’s overall performance in a standard exercise. This is most suitable for monitoring progress through an exercise program and for getting goals. The test may be based eight on measuring the distance covered in a fixed time or the time needed to cover fixed distance.
The process by which an individual becomes, or remains, emotionally attached to real or imagined objects or event that occurred during early childhood. If the fixations are powerful, resulting from traumatic events, they may lead to immature and inappropriate behavior. Regression to this event is regarded by some analysts as the basis of the certain emotional disorder. The word fixation also describes the alignment and stabilization of fractured bones. Fixation may be external, as with a plaster cast, or internal using, pins, plates, or nails introduced surgically into the injured area.
A chemical agent, such as formaldehyde, that is used for the hardening and preservation of tissue specimens prior to microscopic analysis.
An abnormal pupil that doesn’t react to light or adjust on accommodation. A fixed pupil may be symptomatic of various eye disorders such as acute glaucoma and uveitis or rarely of a brain tumor in which brainstem structures that control eye automatics are compressed. Both pupils being fixed and dilated is a sign of brain death.
An artificial cardiac pacemaker (a device that sends electrical impulses to the heart to maintain a regular heartbeat) that is set to pace at a single rate regardless of the patients’ own heart rate. Fixed-rate pacemakers are still used in some clinical and diagnostic settings and may be appropriate for the elderly. For active people, rate-response pacemakers are often a better choice, these devices deliver electrical stimuli as required and at a rate to match the patient’s level of activity.
A type of chest injury that usually results from a traffic accident or from violence. In flail chest, several adjacent ribs are broken in more than one place, producing a piece of the chest wall that moves in the opposite way to normal as the victim breathes when the victim inhales, and the rib cage expands, the flail segment moves inwards and during exhalation, it moves towards. The injury may severely impair the efficiency of breathing and may lead to respiratory failure and shock. It makes breathing and coughing very painful, which an increase the risk of chest infection and lung collapse. Emergency treatment involves turning the person onto the affected side or firmly strapping the flail segment In severe cases, artificial ventilation is needed until the chest wall has become stable and the ribs have healed.