Europe and the third world war 1953_1968
By 1953 the forces of nationalism, which had speeded the disappearance of the great European empires in Asia, were spreading to other parts of the underdeveloped world. The revolution in Egypt was the prelude to the stirring of a more militant and more revolutionary form of nationalism throughout the Arab nations. In Africa too, both north and South of the Sahara, nationalist leaders were emerging who were determined to establish the political independence of their countries and end the privileges of the European minorities. And even where independence had been achieved there were still many grounds for disputes between the former colonies and the European powers, for the latter frequently continued to have a major economic stake in the old colonial areas.
The relations between the western European States and the new nations of Africa and Asia were complicated by the fact that Russia and the Communist powers were interested at this very time in increasing their political influence in, and their economic contact with these countries, especially in the middle east. The new nations were generally not anxious to exchange their colonial masters for new Communist on but rather sought to create the third world between East and West. Nevertheless, they were dragged into world political rivalries, as both the western powers and the Russians sought to build up their systems of alliances.
The Baghdad Pact: For the western powers one means of containing communism in Asia and the Middle East was the creation of Military alliances with the pro-western government. In 1952 Greece and Turkey had been drawn into NATO and the American later established rocket bases on the Turkish Soviet border. In that area they were coming to adopt the protective anti Communist role so long held by Britain since the days of Palmerston and Disraeli. Elsewhere in the Middle East Britain remained the most involved Western power. British military advisers remained in Iraq and Jordan, and in 1955 Iraq was encouraged to form an alliance with Turkey. This alliance was enlarged to include Pakistan, Persia and Britain. It was clearly anticommunist and strongly disliked by neutralist States in the area. India for instance was fearful that it might be turned against her in her disputes with Pakistan, although the British made it clear that they would not Ally against another Commonwealth country. Although the united States was not a member of the pact it encouraged it, and the Baghdad pact was linked to both NATO through Britain and Turkey and the South East Asia treaty organization through Britain and Pakistan. SEATO was another anti Communist military pact made up of the united States, Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand and Pakistan, and was formed in September, 1954,t o counter aggression in the South west Pacific area below the latitude.