Oxygen and nutrients enter the fetal blood through the placenta, an organ embedded in the inner lining and wall of the uterus and connected to the fetus by the umbilical cord. The maternal and fetal circulations in the placenta, which allows the exchanges of nutrients and waste products. blood returning to the heart flows into the right atrium and from there the right ventricle. In the fetus, at this stage and has more tissues to supply with oxygen. Bypassing pulmonary artery into the aorta, through a channel called the debuts arteries. The aorta carries the blood to the lower parts of the body. From there, completely deoxygenated blood is carried via the umbilical cord to the placenta, where carbon dioxide and other waste diffuses into the mother’s blood. After birth, the foramen and the ductus arteriosus normally close. Blood pumped from the right ventricle passes via the pulmonary artery to the lungs fro reoxygenation and elimination of carbon dioxide and other wastes. In rare cases, the foramen ovale or ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth, causing a congenital heart disorder.
Journey Of The Sperm
when semen is ejaculated into the vagina, as many as 500 million sperms are released, most of which are capable of fertilizing an ovum. But, as they travel upwards (propelled by their whiplike tails), more than half are killed by acidic vaginal secretions, may more die during they journey up through the cervix and uterus and into the fallopian tubes. The journey can take from less than half an hour to five hours and, in the end only a few thousand sperm have survived.
Various monitoring techniques may be used during childbirth to detect signs of fetal distress. A cardiotocograph will record whether the baby’s heart rate is slow or if it is failing to show normal variability. Acidosis, which indicates that the oxygen supply to the fetus is inadequate, can be detected in a supply of blood taken from the baby’s scalp. Signs of meconium in the amniotic fluid can also be an indication of fetal distress. may be used to be delivered promptly by caesarean section, delivery or extraction
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